Unit – 6

Biology in essence is the story of life on earth. While individual organisms die without fail, species continue to live through millions of years unless threatened by natural or anthropogenic extinction. Reproduction becomes a vital process without which species cannot survive for long.

Each individual leaves its progeny by asexual or sexual means. Sexual mode of reproduction enables creation of new variants, so that survival advantage is enhanced. This unit examines the general principles underlying reproductive processes in living organisms and then explains the details of this process in flowering plants and humans as easy to relate representative examples.

A related perspective on human reproductive health and how reproductive ill health can be avoided is also presented to complete our understanding of biology of reproduction.

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