Intermolecular forces operate between the particles of matter. These forces differ from pure electrostatic forces that exist between two oppositely charged ions.
Also, these do not include forces that hold atoms of a covalent molecule together through covalent bond.
Competition between thermal energy and intermolecular interactions determines the state of matter.
“Bulk” properties of matter such as behaviour of gases, characteristics of solids and liquids and change of state depend upon energy of constituent particles and the type of interaction between them.
Chemical properties of a substance do not change with change of state, but the reactivity depends upon the physical state.
Avogadro law states that equal volumes of all gases under same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal number of molecules.
Dalton’s law of partial pressure states that total pressure exerted by a mixture of non-reacting gases is equal to the sum of partial pressures exerted by them. Thus p = p1+p2+p3+ ... .
Relationship between pressure, volume, temperature and number of moles of a gas describes its state and is called equation of state of the gas.
Equation of state for ideal gas is pV=nRT, where R is a gas constant and its value depends upon units chosen for pressure, volume and temperature.
At high pressure and low temperature intermolecular forces start operating strongly between the molecules of gases because they come close to each other.
Under suitable temperature and pressure conditions gases can be liquified.
Liquids may be considered as continuation of gas phase into a region of small volume and very strong molecular attractions.
Some properties of liquids e.g., surface tension and viscosity are due to strong intermolecular attractive forces.