Matter is made up of one or different type of elements. Under normal conditions no other element exists as an independent atom in nature, except noble gases. However, a group of atoms is found to exist together as one species having characteristic properties. Such a group of atoms is called a molecule.
Obviously there must be some force which holds these constituent atoms together in the molecules. The attractive force which holds various constituents (atoms, ions, etc.) together in different chemical species is called a chemical bond.
Since the formation of chemical compounds takes place as a result of combination of atoms of various elements in different ways, it raises many questions. Why do atoms combine? Why are only certain combinations possible? Why do some atoms combine while certain others do not? Why do molecules possess definite shapes?
To answer such questions different theories and concepts have been put forward from time to time. These are Kössel-Lewis approach, Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) Theory, Valence Bond (VB) Theory and Molecular Orbital (MO) Theory.
The evolution of various theories of valence and the interpretation of the nature of chemical bonds have closely been related to the developments in the understanding of the structure of atom, the electronic configuration of elements and the periodic table.
Every system tends to be more stable and bonding is nature’s way of lowering the energy of the system to attain stability.