• Major issues relating to environmental pollution and depletion of valuable natural resources vary in dimension from local, regional to global levels.
  • Air pollution primarily results from burning of fossil fuel, e.g., coal and petroleum, in industries and in automobiles.
  • They are harmful to humans, animals and plants, and therefore must be removed to keep our air clean.
  • Domestic sewage, the most common source of pollution of water bodies, reduces dissolved oxygen but increases biochemical oxygen demand of receiving water.
  • Domestic sewage is rich in nutrients, especially, nitrogen and phosphorus, which cause eutrophication and nuisance algal blooms.
  • Industrial waste waters are often rich in toxic chemicals, especially heavy metals and organic compounds. Industrial waste waters harm living organisms.
  • Municipal solid wastes also create problems and must be disposed of in landfills. Disposal of hazardous wastes like defunct ships, radioactive wastes and e-wastes requires additional efforts.
  • Soil pollution primarily results from agricultural chemicals (e.g., pesticides) and leachates from solid wastes deposited over it.
  • Two major environmental issues of global nature are increasing greenhouse effect, which is warming Earth, and depletion of ozone in the stratosphere.
  • Enhanced greenhouse effect is mainly due to increased emission of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and CFCs., and also due to deforestation.
  • It may drastically change rainfall pattern, global temperature, besides deleteriously affecting living organisms.
  • Ozone in the stratosphere, which protects us from harmful effects of ultraviolet radiation, is depleting fast due to emission of CFCs thus increasing the risks of skin cancer, mutation and other disorders.

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