|UNIT I: Physical World and Measurement||Physics: Scope and excitement; nature of physical laws;|
Physics, technology and society.
|Need for measurement: Units of measurement;|
systems of units; SI units, fundamental and derived units.
Length, mass and time measurements;
accuracy and precision of measuring instruments;
errors in measurement; significant figures.
|Dimensions of physical quantities,|
dimensional analysis and its applications.
|UNIT II: Kinematics||Frame of reference, Motion in a straight line;|
Position-time graph, speed and velocity.
Uniform and non-uniform motion,
average speed and instantaneous velocity.
Uniformly accelerated motion,
velocity-time and position-time graphs,
for uniformly accelerated motion (graphical treatment).
|Elementary concepts of differentiation and integration for describing motion.|
Scalar and vector quantities: Position and displacement vectors,
general vectors, general vectors and notation,
equality of vectors, multiplication of vectors by a real number;
addition and subtraction of vectors. Relative velocity.
|Unit vectors, Resolution of a vector in a plane-rectangular component.|
|Scalar and Vector products of Vectors, Motion in a plane.|
Cases of uniform velocity and uniform acceleration- projectile motion.
Uniform circular motion.
|UNIT III: Laws of Motion||Intuitive concept of force.|
Inertia, Newton’s first law of motion;
momentum and Newton’s second law of motion;
impulse; Newton’s third law of motion.
Law of conservation of linear momentum and its applications.
|Equilibrium of concurrent forces.|
Static and Kinetic friction, laws of friction,
rolling friction, lubrication.
|Dynamics of uniform circular motion. Centripetal force,|
examples of circular motion (vehicle on level circular road, vehicle on banked road).
|UNIT IV: Work, Energy and Power||Work done by a constant force and variable force;|
kinetic energy, work-energy theorem, power.
|Notion of potential energy, potential energy of a spring, conservative forces;|
conservation of mechanical energy (kinetic and potential energies);
nonconservative forces; motion in a vertical circle,
elastic and inelastic collisions in one and two dimensions.
|UNIT V: Motion of System of Particles and Rigid Body||Centre of mass of a two-particle system,|
momentum conservation and centre of mass motion.
Centre of mass of a rigid body; centre of mass of uniform rod.
|Moment of a force,-torque, angular momentum,|
conservation of angular momentum with some examples.
|Equilibrium of rigid bodies, rigid body rotation and|
equation of rotational motion,
comparison of linear and rotational motions;
moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Values of M.I. for simple geometrical objects (no derivation).
Statement of parallel and perpendicular axes theorems and their applications.
|UNIT VI: Gravitation||Kepler’s laws of planetary motion. The universal law of gravitation.|
Acceleration due to gravity and its variation with altitude and depth.
|Gravitational potential energy; gravitational potential.|
Escape velocity, orbital velocity of a satellite. Geostationary satellites.
|UNIT VII: Properties of Bulk Matter||Elastic behavior, Stress-strain relationship. Hooke’s law, Young’s modulus,|
bulk modulus, shear, modulus of rigidity, poisson’s ratio; elastic energy.
|Viscosity, Stokes’ law, terminal velocity, Reynold’s number,|
streamline and turbulent flow. Critical velocity,
Bernoulli’s theorem and its applications.
|Surface energy and surface tension, angle of contact, excess of pressure,|
application of surface tension ideas to drops, bubbles and capillary rise
|Heat, temperature, thermal expansion;|
thermal expansion of solids, liquids, and gases. Anomalous expansion.
Specific heat capacity: Cp, Cv- calorimetry; change of state – latent heat.
|Heat transfer- conduction and thermal conductivity,|
convection and radiation.
Qualitative ideas of Black Body Radiation,
Wein’s displacement law, and Green House effect.
|Newton’s law of cooling and Stefan’s law.|
|UNIT VIII: Thermodynamics||Thermal equilibrium and definition of temperature (zeroth law of Thermodynamics).|
Heat, work and internal energy.
First law of thermodynamics. Isothermal and adiabatic processes.
|Second law of the thermodynamics:|
Reversible and irreversible processes.
Heat engines and refrigerators.
|UNIT IX: Behaviour of Perfect Gas and Kinetic Theory||Equation of state of a perfect gas, work done on compressing a gas.|
|Kinetic theory of gases: Assumptions, concept of pressure.|
Kinetic energy and temperature;
degrees of freedom, law of equipartition of energy (statement only)
and application to specific heat capacities of gases;
concept of mean free path.
|UNIT X: Oscillations and Waves||Periodic motion-period, frequency, displacement as a function of time.|
Simple harmonic motion (SHM) and its equation; phase;
oscillations of a spring-restoring force and force constant;
energy in SHM –Kinetic and potential energies;
simple pendulum-derivation of expression for its time period;
free, forced and damped oscillations (qualitative ideas only), resonance.
|Wave motion. Longitudinal and transverse waves, speed of wave motion.|
Displacement relation for a progressive wave.
Principle of superposition of waves,
reflection of waves, standing waves in strings and organ pipes,
fundamental mode and harmonics. Beats. Doppler effect.
|UNIT I: Electrostatics||Electric charges and their conservation.|
Coulomb’s law-force between two point charges,
forces between multiple charges;
superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
|Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole;|
torque on a dipole in a uniform electric field.
|Electric flux, statement of Gauss’s theorem and its applications to find field due to|
infinitely long straight wire,
uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin
spherical shell (field inside and outside)
|Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge,|
a dipole and system of charges: equipotential surfaces,
electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and
of electric diploes in an electrostatic field.
|Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor.|
Dielectrics and electric polarization, capacitors and capacitance,
combination of capacitors in series and in parallel,
capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates,
energy stored in a capacitor, Van de Graaff generator.
|UNIT II: Current Electricity||Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor,|
drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current;
Ohm’s law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (liner and non-linear),
electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity.
|Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors;|
series and parallel combinations of resistors;
temperature dependence of resistance.
|Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell,|
combination of cells in series and in parallel.
|Kirchhoff’s laws and simple applications. Wheatstone bridge,|
|Potentiometer-principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells;|
measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
|UNIT III: Magnetic Effects of Current and Magnetism||Concept of magnetic field, Oersted’s experiment.|
Biot-Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
|Ampere’s law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire,|
straight and toroidal solenoids.
Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic
and electric fields. Cyclotron.
|Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field.|
Force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-
definition of ampere.
Torque experienced by a current loop in a magnetic field;
moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and
conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
|Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment.|
Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron.
Magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet)
along its axis and perpendicular to its axis.
Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field;
bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines;
Earth’s magnetic field and magnetic elements.
|Para-, dia-and ferro-magnetic substances, with examples.|
|Electromagnetic and factors affecting their strengths.|
|UNIT IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents||Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, induced emf and current;|
Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual inductance.
|Alternating currents, peak and rms value of alternating current/ voltage;|
reactance and impedance;
LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only),
LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, wattles current.
|AC generator and transformer.|
|UNIT V: Electromagnetic Waves||Need for displacement current.|
|Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only).|
Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves.
|Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet,|
x-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
|UNIT VI: Optics||Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula. Refraction of light,|
total internal reflection and its applications optical fibres,
refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses, thin lens formula, lens-maker’s formula.
Magnification, power of a lens,
combination of thin lenses in contact combination of a lens and a mirror.
Refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
|Scattering of light- blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at|
sunrise and sunset.
|Optical instruments: Human eye, image formation and accommodation,|
correction of eye defects (myopia and hypermetropia) using lenses.
|Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their|
|Wave optics: Wavefront and Huygens’ principle,|
reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wavefronts.
|Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygens’ principle.|
|Interference, Young’s double hole experiment and expression for fringe width,|
coherent sources and sustained interference of light.
|Diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum.|
|Resolving power of microscopes and astronomical telescopes.|
Polarisation, plane polarized light; Brewster’s law,
uses of plane polarized light and Polaroids.
|UNIT VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation||Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard’s observations;|
Einstein’s photoelectric equation- particle nature of light.
|Matter waves- wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation.|
Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted;
only conclusion should be explained).
|UNIT VIII: Atoms and Nuclei||Alpha- particle scattering experiments; Rutherford’s model of atom;|
Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum. Composition and size of nucleus,
atomic masses, isotopes, isobars; isotones.
|Radioactivity- alpha, beta and gamma particles/ rays and their properties decay law.|
Mass-energy relation, mass defect;
binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number,
nuclear fission and fusion.
|UNIT IX: Electronic Devices||Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), conductors,|
insulators and semiconductors;
semiconductor diode- I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias,
diode as a rectifier; I-V characteristics of LED, photodiode,
solar cell, and Zener diode; Zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor;
transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator.
Logic gates (OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Transistor as a switch.