Chapter 18 – Body Fluids and Circulation

You have learnt that all living cells have to be provided with nutrients, O2 and other essential substances. Also, the waste or harmful substances produced, have to be removed continuously for healthy functioning of tissues.

It is therefore, essential to have efficient mechanisms for the movement of these substances to the cells and from the cells.

Different groups of animals have evolved different methods for this transport. Simple organisms like sponges and coelenterates circulate water from their surroundings through their body cavities to facilitate the cells to exchange these substances.

More complex organisms use special fluids within their bodies to transport such materials. Blood is the most commonly used body fluid by most of the higher organisms including humans for this purpose.

Another body fluid, lymph, also helps in the transport of certain substances. In this chapter, you will learn about the composition and properties of blood and lymph (tissue fluid) and the mechanism of circulation of blood is also explained herein.

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