An overview of the topics that need to be covered for Biology class 11 NEET
UNIT I: DIVERSITY IN LIVING WORLD
- What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification; Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics; Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy; Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
- Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category); Angiosperms- classification up to class, characteristic features and examples).
- Salient features and classification of animals-non chordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
- Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera; Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
UNIT II: STRUCTURAL ORGANISATION IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS
- Morphology and modifications; Tissues; Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants: Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower, fruit, and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the PracticalSyllabus).
- Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy, and functions of different systems (digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: CELL STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION
- Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life; Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell; Cellenvelope, cell membrane, cell wall; Cell organelles-structure and function; Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum,Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, microbodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella,centrioles (ultrastructure and function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
- Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids; Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
- B Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis, and their significance.
UNIT IV: PLANT PHYSIOLOGY
- Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients; Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential, osmosis, plasmolysis; Long-distance transport of water –Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata; Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
- Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals, macro and micronutrients, and their role; Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity; Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition; Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
- Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition; Site of photosynthesis take place; pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea); Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis; Cyclic and non-cyclic and photophosphorylation; Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis
- Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis, fermentation (anaerobic), TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic); Energy relations-Number of ATP molecules generated; Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
- Plant growth and development: Seed germination; Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth; Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation; Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell; Growth regulators-auxin, gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA; Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY
- Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands; Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones; Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; Egestion; Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM, indigestion, constipation,vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
- Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only); Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases, transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes; Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema, Occupational respiratory disorders.
- Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function; Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels; Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG,Double circulation; Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system-Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
- Excretory Products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism; Human excretory system-structure and function; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin, AtrialNatriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus; Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure,renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
- Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction; Skeletal system and its functions (To be dealt with the relevant practical of Practical syllabus); Joints; Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia Gravis, Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
- Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves; Nervous system in humans- central nervous system, peripheralnervous system and visceral nervous system; Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action; Sense organs;Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
- Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones; Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus,Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads; Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea);Role of hormones as messengers and regulators, Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g.Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exophthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison‟s disease).