|UNIT I: Diversity in Living World||What is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification;|
Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics;
Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;
Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
|Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera;|
Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
|Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes,|
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category);
Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
|Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).|
|UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and Plants||Morphology and modifications; Tissues;|
Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants:
Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower,
fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
|Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and|
functions of different systems
(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
|UNIT III: Cell Structure and Function||Cell theory and cell as the basic unit of life;|
Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell;
Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall;
Cell organelles-structure and function;
Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and Function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
|Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;|
Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
|Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.|
|UNIT IV: Plant Physiology||Transport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients;|
Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential,
osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata;
Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;
Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
|Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals,|
macro and micronutrients and their role;
Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;
Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition;
Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
|Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition;|
Site of photosynthesis take place;
pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea);
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis;
Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation;
Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
|Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis,|
TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic);
Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated;
Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
|Plant growth and development: Seed germination;|
Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;
Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation;
Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell;
Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;
Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
|UNIT V: Human Physiology||Digestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands;|
Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones;
Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion;
Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
|Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only);|
Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases,
transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes;
Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema,
Occupational respiratory disorders.
|Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function;|
Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels;
Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation;
Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system, Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
|Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism;|
Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin,
Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus;
Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
|Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction;|
Skeletal system and its functions; Joints;
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis,
Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
|Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves;|
Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system,
peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action;
Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
|Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones;|
Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads;
Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea);
Role of hormones as messengers and regulators,
Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
|UNIT I: Reproduction||Reproduction in organisms: Reproduction,|
a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;
Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction;
Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation;
vegetative propagation in plants.
|Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure;|
Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices;
Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization;
Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo,
Development of seed and formation of fruit;
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
Significance of seed and fruit formation.
|Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems;|
Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
|Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods,|
Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.
|UNIT II: Genetics and Evolution||Heredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance;|
Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance,
Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance;
Chromosome theory of inheritance;
Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds,
honey bee; Linkage and crossing over;
Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness;
Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia;
Chromosomal disorders in humans;
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
|Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging;|
DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulationLac Operon;
Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
|Evolution: Origin of life;Biological evolution and|
evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology,
comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence;
Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution;
Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and
Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;
Gene flow and genetic drift; HardyWeinberg’s principle;
Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
|UNIT III: Biology and Human Welfare||Health and Disease; Pathogens;|
parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm);
Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
|Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture,|
single cell protein,Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
|Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing,|
industrial production, sewage treatment,
energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
|UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its Applications||Principles and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).|
|Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy;|
Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals;
Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
|UNIT V: Ecology and environment||Organisms and environment: Habitat and niche;|
Population and ecological adaptations;
Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
|Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;|
Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession;
Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
|Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity;|
Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity;
Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
|Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control;|
Water pollution and its control;
Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management;
Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning;
Ozone depletion; Deforestation;
Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.