NEET 2020 Biology Updated Syllabus

BIOLOGY 
CLASS XICONTENTS
UNIT I: Diversity in Living WorldWhat is living? ; Biodiversity; Need for classification;
Three domains of life; Taxonomy & Systematics;
Concept of species and taxonomical hierarchy;
Binomial nomenclature; Tools for study of Taxonomy – Museums, Zoos, Herbaria, Botanical gardens.
Five kingdom classification; salient features and classification of Monera;
Protista and Fungi into major groups; Lichens; Viruses and Viroids.
Salient features and classification of plants into major groups-Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes,
Gymnosperms and Angiosperms (three to five salient and distinguishing features and at least two examples of each category);
Angiosperms classification up to class, characteristic features and examples.
Salient features and classification of animals-nonchordate up to phyla level and chordate up to classes level (three to five salient features and at least two examples).
UNIT II: Structural Organisation in Animals and PlantsMorphology and modifications; Tissues;
Anatomy and functions of different parts of flowering plants:
Root, stem, leaf, inflorescence- cymose and recemose, flower,
fruit and seed (To be dealt along with the relevant practical of the Practical Syllabus).
Animal tissues; Morphology, anatomy and
functions of different systems
(digestive, circulatory, respiratory, nervous and reproductive) of an insect (cockroach). (Brief account only)
UNIT III: Cell Structure and FunctionCell theory and cell as the basic unit of life;
Structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell; Plant cell and animal cell;
Cell envelope, cell membrane, cell wall;
Cell organelles-structure and function;
Endomembrane system-endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, vacuoles; mitochondria, ribosomes, plastids, micro bodies; Cytoskeleton, cilia, flagella, centrioles (ultra structure and Function); Nucleus-nuclear membrane, chromatin, nucleolus.
Chemical constituents of living cells: Biomolecules-structure and function of proteins, carbodydrates, lipids, nucleic acids;
Enzymes-types, properties, enzyme action.
Cell division: Cell cycle, mitosis, meiosis and their significance.
UNIT IV: Plant PhysiologyTransport in plants: Movement of water, gases and nutrients;
Cell to cell transport-Diffusion, facilitated diffusion, active transport; Plant – water relations – Imbibition, water potential,
osmosis, plasmolysis; Long distance transport of water – Absorption, apoplast, symplast, transpiration pull, root pressure and guttation; Transpiration-Opening and closing of stomata;
Uptake and translocation of mineral nutrients-Transport of food, phloem transport, Mass flow hypothesis;
Diffusion of gases (brief mention).
Mineral nutrition: Essential minerals,
macro and micronutrients and their role;
Deficiency symptoms; Mineral toxicity;
Elementary idea of Hydroponics as a method to study mineral nutrition;
Nitrogen metabolism-Nitrogen cycle, biological nitrogen fixation.
Photosynthesis: Photosynthesis as a means of Autotrophic nutrition;
Site of photosynthesis take place;
pigments involved in Photosynthesis (Elementary idea);
Photochemical and biosynthetic phases of photosynthesis;
Cyclic and non cyclic and photophosphorylation;
Chemiosmotic hypothesis; Photorespiration C3 and C4 pathways; Factors affecting photosynthesis.
Respiration: Exchange gases; Cellular respiration-glycolysis,
fermentation (anaerobic),
TCA cycle and electron transport system (aerobic);
Energy relationsNumber of ATP molecules generated;
Amphibolic pathways; Respiratory quotient.
Plant growth and development: Seed germination;
Phases of Plant growth and plant growth rate; Conditions of growth;
Differentiation, dedifferentiation and redifferentiation;
Sequence of developmental process in a plant cell;
Growth regulators-auxin,gibberellin, cytokinin, ethylene, ABA;
Seed dormancy; Vernalisation; Photoperiodism.
UNIT V: Human PhysiologyDigestion and absorption; Alimentary canal and digestive glands;
Role of digestive enzymes and gastrointestinal hormones;
Peristalsis, digestion, absorption and assimilation of proteins, carbohydrates and fats; Caloric value of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats; Egestion;
Nutritional and digestive disorders – PEM,
indigestion, constipation, vomiting, jaundice, diarrhea.
Breathing and Respiration: Respiratory organs in animals (recall only);
Respiratory system in humans; Mechanism of breathing and its regulation in humans-Exchange of gases,
transport of gases and regulation of respiration Respiratory volumes;
Disorders related to respiration-Asthma, Emphysema,
Occupational respiratory disorders.
Body fluids and circulation: Composition of blood, blood groups, coagulation of blood; Composition of lymph and its function;
Human circulatory system-Structure of human heart and blood vessels;
Cardiac cycle, cardiac output, ECG, Double circulation;
Regulation of cardiac activity; Disorders of circulatory system, Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Angina pectoris, Heart failure.
Excretory products and their elimination: Modes of excretion- Ammonotelism, ureotelism, uricotelism;
Human excretory system-structure and fuction; Urine formation, Osmoregulation; Regulation of kidney function-Renin-angiotensin,
Atrial Natriuretic Factor, ADH and Diabetes insipidus;
Role of other organs in excretion; Disorders; Uraemia, Renal failure, Renal calculi, Nephritis; Dialysis and artificial kidney.
Locomotion and Movement: Types of movement- ciliary, fiagellar, muscular; Skeletal muscle- contractile proteins and muscle contraction;
Skeletal system and its functions; Joints;
Disorders of muscular and skeletal system-Myasthenia gravis,
Tetany, Muscular dystrophy, Arthritis, Osteoporosis, Gout.
Neural control and coordination: Neuron and nerves;
Nervous system in humanscentral nervous system,
peripheral nervous system and visceral nervous system;
Generation and conduction of nerve impulse; Reflex action;
Sense organs; Elementary structure and function of eye and ear.
Chemical coordination and regulation: Endocrine glands and hormones;
Human endocrine system-Hypothalamus, Pituitary, Pineal, Thyroid, Parathyroid, Adrenal, Pancreas, Gonads;
Mechanism of hormone action (Elementary Idea);
Role of hormones as messengers and regulators,
Hypo-and hyperactivity and related disorders (Common disorders e.g. Dwarfism, Acromegaly, Cretinism, goiter, exopthalmic goiter, diabetes, Addison’s disease).
CLASS XII
UNIT I: ReproductionReproduction in organisms: Reproduction,
a characteristic feature of all organisms for continuation of species;
Modes of reproduction – Asexual and sexual; Asexual reproduction;
Modes-Binary fission, sporulation, budding, gemmule, fragmentation;
vegetative propagation in plants.
Sexual reproduction in flowering plants: Flower structure;
Development of male and female gametophytes; Pollination-types, agencies and examples; Outbreeding devices;
Pollen-Pistil interaction; Double fertilization;
Post fertilization events- Development of endosperm and embryo,
Development of seed and formation of fruit;
Special modes-apomixis, parthenocarpy, polyembryony;
Significance of seed and fruit formation.
Human Reproduction: Male and female reproductive systems;
Microscopic anatomy of testis and ovary;
Gametogenesis-spermatogenesis & oogenesis; Menstrual cycle; Fertilisation, embryo development upto blastocyst formation, implantation; Pregnancy and placenta formation (Elementary idea); Parturition (Elementary idea); Lactation (Elementary idea).
Reproductive health: Need for reproductive health and prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STD); Birth control-Need and Methods,
Contraception and Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP); Amniocentesis; Infertility and assisted reproductive technologies – IVF, ZIFT, GIFT.
UNIT II: Genetics and EvolutionHeredity and variation: Mendelian Inheritance;
Deviations from MendelismIncomplete dominance, Co-dominance,
Multiple alleles and Inheritance of blood groups, Pleiotropy;
Elementary idea of polygenic inheritance;
Chromosome theory of inheritance;
Chromosomes and genes; Sex determination-In humans, birds,
honey bee; Linkage and crossing over;
Sex linked inheritance-Haemophilia, Colour blindness;
Mendelian disorders in humans-Thalassemia;
Chromosomal disorders in humans;
Down’s syndrome, Turner’s and Klinefelter’s syndromes.
Molecular basis of Inheritance: Search for genetic material and DNA as genetic material; Structure of DNA and RNA; DNA packaging;
DNA replication; Central dogma; Transcription, genetic code, translation; Gene expression and regulationLac Operon;
Genome and human genome project; DNA finger printing.
Evolution: Origin of life;Biological evolution and
evidences for biological evolution from Paleontology,
comparative anatomy, embryology and molecular evidence;
Darwin’s contribution, Modern Synthetic theory of Evolution;
Mechanism of evolution-Variation (Mutation and Recombination) and
Natural Selection with examples, types of natural selection;
Gene flow and genetic drift; HardyWeinberg’s principle;
Adaptive Radiation; Human evolution.
UNIT III: Biology and Human WelfareHealth and Disease; Pathogens;
parasites causing human diseases (Malaria, Filariasis, Ascariasis.
Typhoid, Pneumonia, common cold, amoebiasis, ring worm);
Basic concepts of immunology-vaccines; Cancer, HIV and AIDS;
Adolescence, drug and alcohol abuse.
Improvement in food production; Plant breeding, tissue culture,
single cell protein,Biofortification; Apiculture and Animal husbandry.
Microbes in human welfare: In household food processing,
industrial production, sewage treatment,
energy generation and as biocontrol agents and biofertilizers.
UNIT IV: Biotechnology and Its ApplicationsPrinciples and process of Biotechnology: Genetic engineering (Recombinant DNA technology).
Application of Biotechnology in health and agriculture: Human insulin and vaccine production, gene therapy;
Genetically modified organisms-Bt crops; Transgenic Animals;
Biosafety issues-Biopiracy and patents.
UNIT V: Ecology and environmentOrganisms and environment: Habitat and niche;
Population and ecological adaptations;
Population interactions-mutualism, competition, predation, parasitism;
Population attributes-growth, birth rate and death rate, age distribution.
Ecosystem: Patterns, components; productivity and decomposition; Energy flow; Pyramids of number, biomass, energy;
Nutrient cycling (carbon and phosphorous); Ecological succession;
Ecological Services-Carbon fixation, pollination, oxygen release.
Biodiversity and its conservation: Concept of Biodiversity;
Patterns of Biodiversity; Importance of Biodiversity; Loss of Biodiversity;
Biodiversity conservation; Hotspots, endangered organisms, extinction, Red Data Book, biosphere reserves, National parks and sanctuaries.
Environmental issues: Air pollution and its control;
Water pollution and its control;
Agrochemicals and their effects; Solid waste management;
Radioactive waste management; Greenhouse effect and global warning;
Ozone depletion; Deforestation;
Any three case studies as success stories addressing environmental issues.

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