Anatomically, a plant is made of different kinds of tissues. The plant tissues are broadly classified into meristematic (apical, lateral and intercalary) and permanent (simple and complex). Assimilation of food and its storage, transportation of water, minerals and photosynthates, and mechanical support are the main functions of tissues. There are three types of tissue systems – epidermal, ground and vascular. The epidermal tissue systems are made of epidermal cells, stomata and the epidermal appendages. The ground tissue system forms the main bulk of the plant. It is divided into three…

6.4.3 Secondary Growth in Roots

In the dicot root, the vascular cambium is completely secondary in origin. It originates from the tissue located just below the phloem bundles, a portion of pericycle tissue, above the protoxylem forming a complete and continuous wavy ring, which later becomes circular.Further events are similar to those already described above for a dicotyledon stem. Secondary growth also occurs in stems and roots of gymnosperms. However, secondary growth does not occur in monocotyledons.

6.4.2 Cork Cambium

As the stem continues to increase in girth due to the activity of vascular cambium, the outer cortical and epidermis layers get broken and need to be replaced to provide new protective cell layers. Hence, sooner or later, another meristematic tissue called cork cambium or phellogen develops, usually in the cortex region. Phellogen is a couple of layers thick. It is made of narrow, thin-walled and nearly rectangular cells. Phellogen cuts off cells on both sides. The outer cells differentiate into cork or phellem while the inner cells differentiate into… Heartwood and sapwood

In old trees, the greater part of secondary xylem is dark brown due to deposition of organic compounds like tannins, resins, oils, gums, aromatic substances and essential oils in the central or innermost layers of the stem. These substances make it hard, durable and resistant to the attacks of microorganisms and insects. This region comprises dead elements with highly lignified walls and is called heartwood. The heartwood does not conduct water but it gives mechanical support to the stem. The peripheral region of the secondary xylem, is lighter in colour… Spring wood and autumn wood

The activity of cambium is under the control of many physiological and environmental factors. In temperate regions, the climatic conditions are not uniform through the year. In the spring season, cambium is very active and produces a large number of xylary elements having vessels with wider cavities. The wood formed during this season is called spring wood or early wood. In winter, the cambium is less active and forms fewer xylary elements that have narrow vessels, and this wood is called autumn wood or late wood. The spring wood is… Activity of the cambial ring

The cambial ring becomes active and begins to cut off new cells, both towards the inner and the outer sides. The cells cut off towards pith, mature into secondary xylem and the cells cut off towards periphery mature into secondary phloem. The cambium is generally more active on the inner side than on the outer. As a result, the amount of secondary xylem produced is more than secondary phloem and soon forms a compact mass. The primary and secondary phloems get gradually crushed due to the continued formation and accumulation… Formation of cambial ring

In dicot stems, the cells of cambium present between primary xylem and primary phloem is the intrafascicular cambium. The cells of medullary cells, adjoining these intrafascicular cambium become meristematic and form the interfascicular cambium. Thus, a continuous ring of cambium is formed.

6.4 Secondary Growth

The growth of the roots and stems in length with the help of apical meristem is called the primary growth. Apart from primary growth most dicotyledonous plants exhibit an increase in girth. This increase is called the secondary growth. The tissues involved in secondary growth are the two lateral meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium.

6.3.6 Isobilateral (Monocotyledonous) Leaf

The anatomy of isobilateral leaf is similar to that of the dorsiventral leaf. In an isobilateral leaf, the stomata are present on both the surfaces of the epidermis; and the mesophyll is not differentiated into palisade and spongy parenchyma. In grasses, certain adaxial epidermal cells along the veins modify themselves into large, empty, colourless cells. These are called bulliform cells. When the bulliform cells in the leaves have absorbed water and are turgid, the leaf surface is exposed. When they are flaccid due to water stress, they make the leaves…