7.11 Ionization of Acids And Bases

Arrhenius concept of acids and bases becomes useful in case of ionization of acids and bases as mostly ionizations in chemical and biological systems occur in aqueous medium. Strong acids like perchloric acid (HClO4),

hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrobromic acid (HBr), hyrdoiodic acid (HI), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) are termed strong because they are almost completely dissociated into their constituent ions in an aqueous medium, thereby acting as proton (H+) donors.

Similarly, strong bases like lithium hydroxide (LiOH), sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), caesium hydroxide (CsOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 are almost completely dissociated into ions in an aqueous medium giving hydroxyl ions, OH- According to Arrhenius concept they are strong acids and bases as they are able to completely dissociate and produce H3O+ and OH ions respectively in the medium.

Alternatively, the strength of an acid or base may also be gauged in terms of Brönsted-Lowry concept of acids and bases, wherein a strong acid means a good proton donor and a strong base implies a good proton acceptor. Consider, the acid-base dissociation equilibrium of a weak acid HA,

HA(aq) +  H2O(l)    ⇔     H3O-(aq)         +     A-(aq)

Acid         base               conjugate acid        conjugate base

In section 7.10.2 we saw that acid (or base) dissociation equilibrium is dynamic involving a transfer of proton in forward and reverse directions.

Now, the question arises that if the equilibrium is dynamic then with passage of time which direction is favoured? What is the driving force behind it? In order to answer these questions we shall deal into the issue of comparing the strengths of the two acids (or bases) involved in the dissociation equilibrium.

Consider the two acids HA and H3O+ present in the above mentioned acid-dissociation equilibrium. We have to see which amongst them is a stronger proton donor.

Whichever exceeds in its tendency of donating a proton over the other shall be termed as the stronger acid and the equilibrium will shift in the direction of weaker acid.


Say, if HA is a stronger acid than H3O+, then HA will donate protons and not H3O+, and the solution will mainly contain A and H3O+ ions. The equilibrium moves in the direction of formation of weaker acid and weaker base because the stronger acid donates a proton to the stronger base.

It follows that as a strong acid dissociates completely in water, the resulting base formed would be very weak i.e., strong acids have very weak conjugate bases.

Strong acids like perchloric acid (HClO4), hydrochloric acid (HCl), hydrobromic acid (HBr), hydroiodic acid (HI), nitric acid (HNO3) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) will give conjugate base ions ClO4, Cl, Br, I, NO3 and HSO4 , which are much weaker bases than H2O.

Similarly a very strong base would give a very weak conjugate acid. On the other hand, a weak acid say HA is only partially dissociated in aqueous medium and thus, the solution mainly contains undissociated HA molecules.

Typical weak acids are nitrous acid (HNO2), hydrofluoric acid (HF) and acetic acid (CH3COOH). It should be noted that the weak acids have very strong conjugate bases. For example, NH2, O2 and H are very good proton acceptors and thus, much stronger bases than H2O.

Certain water soluble organic compounds like phenolphthalein and bromothymol blue

behave as weak acids and exhibit different colours in their acid (HIn) and conjugate base (In-) forms.

HIn(aq)        +      H2O(l)    ⇔     H3O+(aq)   +   In-(aq)

Acid indicator                           conjugate       conjugate base

Color A                                           acid              color B


Such compounds are useful as indicators in acid-base titrations, and finding out H+ Ion concentration.

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