5.1 The Root

In many of the dicotyledonous plants, the direct elongation of the radicle forms primary root which grows inside soil. It contains lateral roots of several order referred to as secondary, tertiary roots. The primary roots and its branches constitute the tap root system example: mustard plant. In monocotyledonous plants, the primary root is short lived and is replaced by many roots which forms the base of stem. They look like fibrous root system example: wheat plant. In some plants like grass, banyan tree roots arise from parts of the plant other than the radicle and are called adventitious roots. The root systems of plants absorb water and minerals from soil. Root system provides proper anchorage to plant parts. It stores reserve food material and act as synthesis of plant growth regulators.



  • cotyledons: The first leaf or one of the first pair or whorl of leaves developed by the embryo of a seed plant or                          of some lower plants.
  • dicotyledon: Any of a class or subclass of angiospermous(flowering) plants that produce an embryo with two                           cotyledons and usually have flowers, fruits and seeds.
  • monocotyledon: A flowering plant with an embryo that has a single cotyledon (seed leaf).

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