4.7.1 Formation of Molecular Orbitals Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO)

According to wave mechanics, the atomic orbitals can be expressed by wave functions (ψ ’s) which represent the amplitude of the electron waves. These are obtained from the solution of Schrödinger wave equation.

However, since it cannot be solved for any system containing more than one electron, molecular orbitals which are one electron wave functions for molecules are difficult to obtain directly from the solution of Schrödinger wave equation. To overcome this problem, an approximate method known as linear combination of atomic orbitals (LCAO) has been adopted.

Let us apply this method to the homonuclear diatomic hydrogen molecule. Consider the hydrogen molecule consisting of two atoms A and B. Each hydrogen atom in the ground state has one electron in 1s orbital. The atomic orbitals of these atoms may be represented by the wave functions ψA and ψB.

Mathematically, the formation of molecular orbitals may be described by the linear combination of atomic orbitals that can take place by addition and by subtraction of wave functions of individual atomic orbitals as shown below.

The molecular orbital σ formed by the addition of atomic orbitals is called the bonding molecular orbital while the molecular orbital σ* formed by the subtraction of atomic orbital is called antibonding molecular orbital as depicted in Fig.

Qualitatively, the formation of molecular orbitals can be understood in terms of the constructive or destructive interference of the electron waves of the combining atoms.

In the formation of bonding molecular orbital, the two electron waves of the bonding atoms reinforce each other due to constructive interference while in the formation of antibonding molecular orbital, the electron waves cancel each other due to destructive interference.

As a result, the electron density in a bonding molecular orbital is located between the nuclei of the bonded atoms because of which the repulsion between the nuclei is very less while in case of an antibonding molecular orbital, most of the electron density is located away from the space between the nuclei.

Infact, there is a nodal plane (on which the electron density is zero) between the nuclei and hence the repulsion between the nuclei is high. Electrons placed in a bonding molecular orbital tend to hold the nuclei together and stabilise a molecule. Therefore, a bonding molecular orbital always possesses lower energy than either of the atomic orbitals that have combined to form it. In contrast, the electrons placed in the antibonding molecular orbital destabilise the molecule.

This is because the mutual repulsion of the electrons in this orbital is more than the attraction between the electrons and the nuclei, which causes a net increase in energy.

It may be noted that the energy of the antibonding orbital is raised above the energy of the parent atomic orbitals that have combined and the energy of the bonding orbital has been lowered than the parent orbitals.

The total energy of two molecular orbitals, however, remains the same as that of two original atomic orbitals.

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