4.5.1 Orbital Overlap Concept

In the formation of hydrogen molecule, there is a minimum energy state when two hydrogen atoms are so near that their atomic orbitals undergo partial interpenetration.

This partial merging of atomic orbitals is called overlapping of atomic orbitals which results in the pairing of electrons. The extent of overlap decides the strength of a covalent bond.

In general, greater the overlap the stronger is the bond formed between two atoms. Therefore, according to orbital overlap concept, the formation of a covalent bond between two atoms results by pairing of electrons present in the valence shell having opposite spins.

 

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