22.2.7 Adrenal Gland

Our body has one pair of adrenal glands, one at the anterior part of each kidney (Figure 22.4 a). The gland is composed of two types of tissues. The centrally located tissue is called the adrenal medulla, and outside this lies the adrenal cortex.

The adrenal medulla secretes two hormones called adrenaline or epinephrine and noradrenaline or norepinephrine. These are commonly called as catecholamines.

Adrenaline and noradrenaline are rapidly secreted in response to stress of any kind and during emergency situations and are called emergency hormones or hormones of Fight or Flight. These hormones increase alertness, pupilary dilation, piloerection (raising of hairs), sweating etc.

Both the hormones increase the heart beat, the strength of heart contraction and the rate of respiration. Catecholamines also stimulate the breakdown of glycogen resulting in an increased concentration of glucose in blood. In addition, they also stimulate the breakdown of lipids and proteins.

The adrenal cortex can be divided into three layers, called zona reticularis (inner layer), zona fasciculata (middle layer) and zona glomerulosa (outer layer). The adrenal cortex secretes many hormones, commonly called as corticoids. The corticoids, which are involved in carbohydrate metabolism are called glucocorticoids.

In our body, cortisol is the main glucocorticoid. Corticoids, which regulate the balance of water and electrolytes in our body are called mineralocorticoids. Aldosterone is the main mineralocorticoid in our body. Glucocorticoids stimulate, gluconeogenesis, lipolysis and proteolysis; and inhibit cellular uptake and utilisation of amino acids.

Cortisol is also involved in maintaining the cardio-vascular system as well as the kidney functions. Glucocorticoids, particularly cortisol, produces antiinflamatory reactions and suppresses the immune response. Cortisol stimulates the RBC production.

Aldosterone acts mainly at the renal tubules and stimulates the reabsorption of Na+ and water and excretion of K+ and phosphate ions. Thus, aldosterone helps in the maintenance of electrolytes, body fluid volume, osmotic pressure and blood pressure.

Small amounts of androgenic steroids are also secreted by the adrenal cortex which play a role in the growth of axial hair, pubic hair and facial hair during puberty.

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