21.2 Human Neural System

The human neural system is divided into two parts : (i) the central neural system (CNS) (ii) the peripheral neural system (PNS) The CNS includes the brain and the spinal cord and is the site of information processing and control.

The PNS comprises of all the nerves of the body associated with the CNS (brain and spinal cord). The nerve fibres of the PNS are of two types : (a) afferent fibres (b) efferent fibres The afferent nerve fibres transmit impulses from tissues/organs to the CNS and the efferent fibres transmit regulatory impulses from the CNS to the concerned peripheral tissues/organs.

The PNS is divided into two divisions called somatic neural system and autonomic neural system. The somatic neural system relays impulses from the CNS to skeletal muscles while the autonomic neural system transmits impulses from the CNS to the involuntary organs and smooth muscles of the body.

The autonomic neural system is further classified into sympathetic neural system and parasympathetic neural system.

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