Unit 12 – Organic Chemistry – Summary

In this unit, we have learnt some basic concepts in structure and reactivity of organic compounds, which are formed due to covalent bonding. The nature of the covalent bonding in organic compounds can be described in terms of orbitals hybridisation concept, according to which carbon can have sp3, sp2 and sp hybridised orbitals. The sp3, sp2 and sp hybridised carbons are found in compounds like methane, ethene and ethyne respectively. The tetrahedral shape of methane, planar shape of ethene and linear shape of ethyne can be understood on the basis…

12.10 Quantitative Analysis

Quantitative analysis of compounds is very important in organic chemistry. It helps chemists in the determination of mass per cent of elements present in a compound. You have learnt in Unit-1 that mass per cent of elements is required for the determination of emperical and molecular formula. The percentage composition of elements present in an organic compound is determined by the following methods: 12.10.1 Carbon and Hydrogen Both carbon and hydrogen are estimated in one experiment. A known mass of an organic compound is burnt in the presence of excess…