12.8.5 Chromatography

Chromatography is an important technique extensively used to separate mixtures into their components, purify compounds and also to test the purity of compounds. The name chromatography is based on the Greek word chroma, for colour since the method was first used for the separation of coloured substances found in plants. In this technique, the mixture of substances is applied onto a stationary phase, which may be a solid or a liquid. A pure solvent, a mixture of solvents, or a gas is allowed to move slowly over the stationary phase.…

12.8.4 Differential Extraction

When an organic compound is present in an aqueous medium, it is separated by shaking it with an organic solvent in which it is more soluble than in water. The organic solvent and the aqueous solution should be immiscible with each other so that they form two distinct layers which can be separated by separatory funnel. The organic solvent is later removed by distillation or by evaporation to get back the compound. Differential extraction is carried out in a separatory funnel as shown in Figure. If the organic compound is…

12.8.3 Distillation

This important method is used to separate (i) volatile liquids from nonvolatile impurities and (ii) the liquids having sufficient difference in their boiling points. Liquids having different boiling points vaporise at different temperatures. The vapours are cooled and the liquids so formed are collected separately. Chloroform (b.p 334 K) and aniline (b.p. 457 K) are easily separated by the technique of distillation (Figure). The liquid mixture is taken in a round bottom flask and heated carefully. On boiling, the vapours of lower boiling component are formed first. The vapours are…

12.8.2 Crystallisation

This is one of the most commonly used techniques for the purification of solid organic compounds. It is based on the difference in the solubilities of the compound and the impurities in a suitable solvent. The impure compound is dissolved in a solvent in which it is sparingly soluble at room temperature but appreciably soluble at higher temperature. The solution is concentrated to get a nearly saturated solution. On cooling the solution, pure compound crystallises out and is removed by filtration. The filtrate (mother liquor) contains impurities and small quantity…

12.8.1 Sublimation

You have learnt earlier that on heating, some solid substances change from solid to vapour state without passing through liquid state. The purification technique based on the above principle is known as sublimation and is used to separate sublimable compounds from nonsublimable impurities.

12.8 Methods Of Purification Of Organic Compounds

Once an organic compound is extracted from a natural source or synthesised in the laboratory, it is essential to purify it. Various methods used for the purification of organic compounds are based on the nature of the compound and the impurity present in it. The common techniques used for purification are as follows : (i) Sublimation (ii) Crystallisation (iii) Distillation (iv) Differential extraction and (v) Chromatography Finally, the purity of a compound is ascertained by determining its melting or boiling point. Most of the pure compounds have sharp melting points…

12.7.9 Hyperconjugation

Hyperconjugation is a general stabilising interaction. It involves delocalisation of σ electrons of C—H bond of an alkyl group directly attached to an atom of unsaturated system or to an atom with an unshared p orbital. The σ electrons of C—H bond of the alkyl group enter into partial conjugation with the attached unsaturated system or with the unshared p orbital. Hyperconjugation is a permanent effect. To understand hyperconjugation effect, let us take an example of CH3CH2 (ethyl cation) in which the positively charged carbon atom has an empty p…

12.7.8 Electromeric Effect (E effect)

It is a temporary effect. The organic compounds having a multiple bond (a double or triple bond) show this effect in the presence of an attacking reagent only. It is defined as the complete transfer of a shared pair of π-electrons to one of the atoms joined by a multiple bond on the demand of an attacking reagent. The effect is annulled as soon as the attacking reagent is removed from the domain of the reaction. It is represented by E and the shifting of the electrons is shown by…

12.7.7 Resonance Effect

The resonance effect is defined as ‘the polarity produced in the molecule by the interaction of two π-bonds or between a π-bond and lone pair of electrons present on an adjacent atom’. The effect is transmitted through the chain. There are two types of resonance or mesomeric effect designated as R or M effect. (i) Positive Resonance Effect (+R effect) In this effect, the transfer of electrons is away from an atom or substituent group attached to the conjugated system. This electron displacement makes certain positions in the molecule of…