1.3 Physics, Technology And Society

The connection between physics, technology and society can be seen in many examples. The discipline of thermodynamics arose from the need to understand and improve the working of heat engines. The steam engine, as we know, is inseparable from the Industrial Revolution in England in the eighteenth century, which had great impact on the course of human civilisation. Sometimes technology gives rise to new physics; at other times physics generates new technology. An example of the latter is the wireless communication technology that followed the discovery of the basic laws…

1.2 Scope And Excitement Of Physics

We can get some idea of the scope of physics by looking at its various sub-disciplines. Basically, there are two domains of interest : macroscopic and microscopic. The macroscopic domain includes phenomena at the laboratory, terrestrial and astronomical scales. The microscopic domain includes atomic, molecular and nuclear phenomena*. Classical Physics deals mainly with macroscopic phenomena and includes subjects like Mechanics, Electrodynamics, Optics and Thermodynamics. Mechanics founded on Newton’s laws of motion and the law of gravitation is concerned with the motion (or equilibrium) of particles, rigid and deformable bodies, and…

Chapter One – Physical World

Humans have always been curious about the world around them. The night sky with its bright celestial objects has fascinated humans since time immemorial. The regular repetitions of the day and night, the annual cycle of seasons, the eclipses, the tides, the volcanoes, the rainbow have always been a source of wonder. The world has an astonishing variety of materials and a bewildering diversity of life and behaviour. The inquiring and imaginative human mind has responded to the wonder and awe of nature in different ways. One kind of response…

Unit 1 Chapter 3 Exercise with solutions

1. What is the basis of classification of algae? 2. When and where does reduction division take place in the life cycle of a liverwort, a moss, a fern, a gymnosperm and an angiosperm? 3. Name three groups of plants that bear archegonia. Briefly describe the life cycle of any one of them. 4. Mention the ploidy of the following: protonemal cell of a moss; primary endosperm nucleus in dicot, leaf cell of a moss; prothallus cell of a ferm; gemma cell in Marchantia; meristem cell of monocot, ovum of…

Chapter 3 – Plant kingdom – Summary

Plant kingdom includes algae, bryophytes, pteridophytes, gymnosperms and angiosperms. Algae are chlorophyll-bearing simple, thalloid, autotrophic and largely aquatic organisms. Depending on the type of pigment possesed and the type of stored food, algae are classfied into three classes, namely Chlorophyceae, Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae. Algae usually reproduce vegetatively by fragmentation, asexually by formation of different types of spores and sexually by formation of gametes which may show isogamy, anisogamy or oogamy. Bryophytes are plants which can live in soil but are dependent on water for sexual reproduction. Their plant body is…

3.6 Plant Life Cycles And Alternation Of Generations

In plants, both haploid and diploid cells can divide by mitosis. This ability leads to the formation of different plant bodies – haploid and diploid. The haploid plant body produces gametes by mitosis. This plant body represents a gametophyte. Following fertilisation the zygote also divides by mitosis to produce a diploid sporophytic plant body. Haploid spores are produced by this plant body by meiosis. These in turn, divide by mitosis to form a haploid plant body once again. Thus, during the life cycle of any sexually reproducing plant, there is…

3.5 Angiosperms

Unlike the gymnosperms where the ovules are naked, in the angiosperms or flowering plants, the pollen grains and ovules are developed in specialised structures called flowers. In angiosperms, the seeds are enclosed in fruits. The angiosperms are an exceptionally large group of plants occurring in wide range of habitats. They range in size from the smallest Wolffia to tall trees of Eucalyptus (over 100 metres). They provide us with food, fodder, fuel, medicines and several other commercially important products. They are divided into two classes : the dicotyledons and the…

3.4 Gymnosperms

The gymnosperms (gymnos : naked, sperma : seeds) are plants in which the ovules are not enclosed by any ovary wall and remain exposed, both before and after fertilisation. The seeds that develop post-fertilisation, are not covered, i.e., are naked. Gymnosperms include medium-sized trees or tall trees and shrubs. One of the gymnosperms, the giant redwood tree Sequoia is one of the tallest tree species. The roots are generally tap roots. Roots in some genera have fungal association in the form of mycorrhiza (Pinus), while in some others (Cycas) small…

3.3 Pteridophytes

The Pteridophytes include horsetails and ferns. Pteridophytes are used for medicinal purposes and as soil-binders. They are also frequently grown as ornamentals. Evolutionarily, they are the first terrestrial plants to possess vascular tissues – xylem and phloem. You shall study more about these tissues in Chapter 6. The pteridophytes are found in cool, damp, shady places though some may flourish well in sandy-soil conditions. You may recall that in bryophytes the dominant phase in the life cycle is the gametophytic plant body. However, in pteridophytes, the main plant body is…

3.2 Bryophytes

Bryophytes include the various mosses and liverworts that are found commonly growing in moist shaded areas in the hills. Bryophytes are also called amphibians of the plant kingdom because these plants can live in soil but are dependent on water for sexual reproduction. They usually occur in damp, humid and shaded localities. They play an important role in plant succession on bare rocks/soil. The plant body of bryophytes is more differentiated than that of algae. It is thallus-like and prostrate or erect, and attached to the substratum by unicellular or…