18.1.2 Formed Elements

Erythrocytes, leucocytes and platelets are collectively called formed elements  and they constitute nearly 45 per cent of the blood. Erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBC) are the most abundant of all the cells in blood.

A healthy adult man has, on an average, 5 millions to 5.5 millions of RBCs mm–3 of blood. RBCs are formed in the red bone marrow in the adults. RBCs are devoid of nucleus in most of the mammals and are biconcave in shape.

They have a red coloured, iron containing complex protein called haemoglobin, hence the colour and name of these cells. A healthy individual has 12-16 gms of haemoglobin in every 100 ml of blood. These molecules play a significant role in transport of respiratory gases.

RBCs have an average life span of 120 days after which they are destroyed in the spleen (graveyard of RBCs). Leucocytes are also known as white blood cells (WBC) as they are colourless due to the lack of haemoglobin.

They are nucleated and are relatively lesser in number which averages 6000-8000 mm–3 of blood. Leucocytes are generally short lived. We have two main categories of WBCs – granulocytes and agranulocytes.

Neutrophils, eosinophils and basophils are different types of granulocytes, while lymphocytes and monocytes are the agranulocytes. Neutrophils are the most abundant cells (60-65 per cent) of the total WBCs and basophils are the least (0.5-1 per cent) among them.

Neutrophils and monocytes (6-8 per cent) are phagocytic cells which destroy foreign organisms entering the body. Basophils secrete histamine, serotonin, heparin, etc., and are involved in inflammatory reactions.

Eosinophils (2-3 per cent) resist infections and are also associated with allergic reactions. Lymphocytes (20-25 per cent) are of two major types – ‘B’ and ‘T’ forms. Both B and T lymphocytes are responsible for immune responses of the body.

Platelets also called thrombocytes, are cell fragments produced from megakaryocytes (special cells in the bone marrow). Blood normally contains 1,500,00-3,500,00 platelets mm–3. Platelets can release a variety of substances most of which are involved in the coagulation or clotting of blood.

A reduction in their number can lead to clotting disorders which will lead to excessive loss of blood from the body.

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