After having some idea about the terms atoms and molecules, it is appropriate here to understand what do we mean by atomic and molecular masses.
1.7.1 Atomic Mass
The atomic mass or the mass of an atom is actually very-very small because atoms are extremely small. Today, we have sophisticated techniques e.g., mass spectrometry for determining the atomic masses fairly accurately.
But in the nineteenth century, scientists could determine the mass of one atom relative to another by experimental means, as has been mentioned earlier. Hydrogen, being the lightest atom was arbitrarily assigned a mass of 1 (without any units) and other elements were assigned masses relative to it.
However, the present system of atomic masses is based on carbon-12 as the standard and has been agreed upon in 1961. Here, Carbon-12 is one of the isotopes of carbon and can be represented as 12C.
In this system, 12C is assigned a mass of exactly 12 atomic mass unit (amu) and masses of all other atoms are given relative to this standard. One atomic mass unit is defined as a mass exactly equal to one-twelfth of the mass of one carbon - 12 atom.
And 1 amu = 1.66056×10–24g
Mass of an atom of hydrogen = 1.6736×10–24g
Thus, in terms of amu, the mass of hydrogen atom = (1.6736×10–24g) / (1.66056×10–24g) =1.0078 amu = 1.0080 amu
Similarly, the mass of oxygen - 16 (16O) atom would be 15.995 amu. At present, ‘amu’ has been replaced by ‘u’, which is known as unified mass. When we use atomic masses of elements in calculations, we actually use average atomic masses of elements, which are explained below.
1.7.2 Average Atomic Mass
Many naturally occurring elements exist as more than one isotope. When we take into account the existence of these isotopes and their relative abundance (per cent occurrence), the average atomic mass of that element can be computed.
For example, carbon has the following three isotopes with relative abundances and masses as shown against each of them. From the above data, the average atomic mass of carbon will come out to be:
(0.98892) (12 u) + (0.01108) (13.00335 u) + (2 × 10–12) (14.00317 u) = 12.011 u
Similarly, average atomic masses for other elements can be calculated. In the periodic table of elements, the atomic masses mentioned for different elements actually represent their average atomic masses.
1.7.3 Molecular Mass
Molecular mass is the sum of atomic masses of the elements present in a molecule. It is obtained by multiplying the atomic mass of each element by the number of its atoms and adding them together. For example, molecular mass of methane, which contains one carbon atom and four hydrogen atoms, can be obtained as follows: Molecular mass of methane
(CH4) = (12.011 u) + 4 (1.008 u) = 16.043 u
Similarly, molecular mass of water (H2O) = 2 × atomic mass of hydrogen + 1 × atomic mass of oxygen
= 2 (1.008 u) + 16.00 u = 18.02 u
1.7.4 Formula Mass
Some substances, such as sodium chloride, do not contain discrete molecules as their constituent units. In such compounds, positive (sodium ion) and negative (chloride ion) entities are arranged in a three-dimensional structure.
It may be noted that in sodium chloride, one Na+ ion is surrounded by six Cl– ion and vice-versa. The formula, such as NaCl, is used to calculate the formula mass instead of molecular mass as in the solid-state sodium chloride does not exist as a single entity.
Thus, the formula mass of sodium chloride is atomic mass of sodium + atomic mass of chlorine = 23.0 u + 35.5 u = 58.5 u