The combination of elements to form compounds is governed by the following five basic laws.
1.5.1 Law of Conservation of Mass
This law was put forth by Antoine Lavoisier in 1789. He performed careful experimental studies for combustion reactions and reached to the conclusion that in all physical and chemical changes, there is no net change in mass duting the process.
Hence, he reached to the conclusion that matter can neither be created nor destroyed. This is called ‘Law of Conservation of Mass’. This law formed the basis for several later developments in chemistry. Infact, this was the result of exact measurement of masses of reactants and products, and carefully planned experiments performed by Lavoisier.
1.5.2 Law of Definite Proportions
This law was given by, a French chemist, Joseph Proust. He stated that a given compound always contains exactly the same proportion of elements by weight. Proust worked with two samples of cupric carbonate — one of which was of natural origin and the other was synthetic.
He found that the composition of elements present in it was same for both the samples. Thus, he concluded that irrespective of the source, a given compound always contains same elements combined together in the same proportion by mass. The validity of this law has been confirmed by various experiments.
It is sometimes also referred to as Law of Definite Composition.
1.5.3 Law of Multiple Proportions
This law was proposed by Dalton in 1803. According to this law, if two elements can combine to form more than one compound, the masses of one element that combine with a fixed mass of the other element, are in the ratio of small whole numbers.
For example, hydrogen combines with oxygen to form two compounds, namely, water and hydrogen peroxide.
Hydrogen + Oxygen → Water
2g 16g 18g
Hydrogen + Oxygen → Hydrogen Peroxide
2g 32g 34g
Here, the masses of oxygen (i.e., 16 g and 32 g), which combine with a fixed mass of hydrogen (2g) bear a simple ratio, i.e., 16:32 or 1: 2.
1.5.4 Gay Lussac’s Law of Gaseous Volumes
This law was given by Gay Lussac in 1808. He observed that when gases combine or are produced in a chemical reaction they do so in a simple ratio by volume, provided all gases are at the same temperature and pressure. Thus, 100 mL of hydrogen combine with 50 mL of oxygen to give 100 mL of water vapour.
Hydrogen + Oxygen → Water
100 mL + 50 mL à 100 mL
Thus, the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen which combine (i.e., 100 mL and 50 mL) bear a simple ratio of 2:1. Gay Lussac’s discovery of integer ratio in volume relationship is actually the law of definite proportions by volume. The law of definite proportions, stated earlier, was with respect to mass. The Gay Lussac’s law was explained properly by the work of Avogadro in 1811.
1.5.5 Avogadro’s Law
In 1811, Avogadro proposed that equal volumes of all gases at the same temperature and pressure should contain equal number of molecules. Avogadro made a distinction between atoms and molecules which is quite understandable in present times.
If we consider again the reaction of hydrogen and oxygen to produce water, we see that two volumes of hydrogen combine with one volume of oxygen to give two volumes of water without leaving any unreacted oxygen.
In fact, Avogadro could explain the above result by considering the molecules to be polyatomic. If hydrogen and oxygen were considered as diatomic as recognised now, then the above results are easily understandable.
However, Dalton and others believed at that time that atoms of the same kind cannot combine and molecules of oxygen or hydrogen containing two atoms did not exist. Avogadro’s proposal was published in the French Journal de Physique.
In spite of being correct, it did not gain much support. After about 50 years, in 1860, the first international conference on chemistry was held in Karlsruhe, Germany, to resolve various ideas. At the meeting, StanislaoCannizaro presented a sketch of a course of chemical philosophy, which emphasized on the importance of Avogadro’s work.